Thursday, 19 July 2012

CLINICAL SIGNS OF INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE


Clinical signs

Disease may appear suddenly and morbidity typically reaches 100%. In the acute form birds are prostrated, debilitated and dehydrated. They produce a watery diarrhea and may have swollen feces-stained vent. Most of the flock is recumbent and have ruffled feathers. Mortality rates vary with virulence of the strain involved, the challenge dose, previous immunity, presence of concurrent disease, as well as the flock's ability to mount an effective immune response. Immunosuppression of very young chickens, less than three weeks of age, is possibly the most important outcome and may not be clinically detectable (subclinical). In addition, infection with less virulent strains may not show overt clinical signs, but birds that have bursal atrophy with fibrotic or cystic follicles and lymphocytopenia before six weeks of age, may be susceptible to opportunistic infection and may die of infection by agents that would not usually cause disease in immunocompetent birds.

Tuesday, 31 January 2012

 Gumboro,Infectious Bursal disease Postmortom Findings
 Gumboro,Infectious Bursal disease Postmortom Findings
 Gumboro,Infectious Bursal disease Postmortom Findings
Gumboro,Infectious Bursal disease Postmortom Findings

INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE (GUMBORO)


iral Diseases

INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE (GUMBORO)

Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection in chickens manifested by inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius, various degrees of nephroso-nephritis and immunosuppression. Clinically the disease is seen only in chickens older than 3 weeks. The feathers around the vent are usually stained with faeces containing plenty of urates.
215.Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection in chickens manifested by inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius, various degrees of nephroso-nephritis and immunosuppression. Clinically the disease is seen only in chickens older than 3 weeks. The feathers around the vent are usually stained with faeces containing plenty of urates.
The period of most apparent clinical symptoms and high death rate is at the age of 3 - 6 weeks. IBD could however be observed as long as chickens have a functioning bursa (up to the age of 16 weeks). In chickens younger than 3 weeks, IBD could be subclinical, but injured bursa leads to immunosuppression. Also, diarrhoea, anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, especially in the region of the head and the neck are present.
The period of most apparent clinical symptoms and high death rate is at the age of 3 - 6 weeks. IBD could however be observed as long as chickens have a functioning bursa (up to the age of 16 weeks). In chickens younger than 3 weeks, IBD could be subclinical, but injured bursa leads to immunosuppression. Also, diarrhoea, anorexia, depression, ruffled feathers, especially in the region of the head and the neck are present.
A natural IBD infection is mostly observed in chickens. In turkeys and ducks it could occur subclinical^, without immunosuppression. Most isolates of the IBD virus in turkeys are serologically different from those in chickens. In premises, once contaminated with the IBD virus, the disease tends to recur, usually as subclinical infection. The dead bodies are dehydrated, often with haemorrhages in the pectoral, thigh and abdominal muscles.
218. The IBD virus belongs to the Birnaviridae family of RNA viruses. Two serotypes are known to exist, but only serotype 1 is pathogenic. The virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants and environmental onditions. In contaminated premises, it could persist for months and in water, forage and faeces for weeks. The incubation period is short and the first symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection. The lesions in the bursa of Fabricius are progressive. In the beginning, the bursa is enlarged, oedematous and covered with a gelatinous transudate.
217.A natural IBD infection is mostly observed in chickens. In turkeys and ducks it could occur subclinical^, without immunosuppression. Most isolates of the IBD virus in turkeys are serologically different from those in chickens. In premises, once contaminated with the IBD virus, the disease tends to recur, usually as subclinical infection. The dead bodies are dehydrated, often with haemorrhages in the pectoral, thigh and abdominal muscles.
The IBD virus belongs to the Birnaviridae family of RNA viruses. Two serotypes are known to exist, but only serotype 1 is pathogenic. The virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants and environmental onditions. In contaminated premises, it could persist for months and in water, forage and faeces for weeks. The incubation period is short and the first symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection. The lesions in the bursa of Fabricius are progressive. In the beginning, the bursa is enlarged, oedematous and covered with a gelatinous transudate.
218.The IBD virus belongs to the Birnaviridae family of RNA viruses. Two serotypes are known to exist, but only serotype 1 is pathogenic. The virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants and environmental onditions. In contaminated premises, it could persist for months and in water, forage and faeces for weeks. The incubation period is short and the first symptoms appear 2-3 days after infection. The lesions in the bursa of Fabricius are progressive. In the beginning, the bursa is enlarged, oedematous and covered with a gelatinous transudate.
IBD virus has a lymphocidic effect and the most severe injuries are in the lymph follicles of the bursa of Fabricius. Most commonly, IBD begins as a serous bursitis.
219.IBD virus has a lymphocidic effect and the most severe injuries are in the lymph follicles of the bursa of Fabricius. Most commonly, IBD begins as a serous bursitis.
IBD lesions undergo various stages of serous haemorrhagic to severe haemorrhagic inflammation. The morbidity rate is very high and could reach 100%, whereas the mortality rate: 20 - 30%. The course of the disease is 5-7 days and the peak mortality occurs in the middle of this period.IBD lesions undergo various stages of serous haemorrhagic to severe haemorrhagic inflammation. The morbidity rate is very high and could reach 100%, whereas the mortality rate: 20 - 30%. The course of the disease is 5-7 days and the peak mortality occurs in the middle of this period.IBD lesions undergo various stages of serous haemorrhagic to severe haemorrhagic inflammation. The morbidity rate is very high and could reach 100%, whereas the mortality rate: 20 - 30%. The course of the disease is 5-7 days and the peak mortality occurs in the middle of this period.
220.221.222.IBD lesions undergo various stages of serous haemorrhagic to severe haemorrhagic inflammation. The morbidity rate is very high and could reach 100%, whereas the mortality rate: 20 - 30%. The course of the disease is 5-7 days and the peak mortality occurs in the middle of this period.
In some cases, the bursa is filled with coagulated fibrinous exudate that usually forms casts with the shape of mucosal folds. In birds surviving the acute stage of the disease, the bursa is progressively atrophying. Microscopically, an atrophy of follicles into the bursa is observed secondary to inflammatory and dystrophic necrobiotic alterations.In some cases, the bursa is filled with coagulated fibrinous exudate that usually forms casts with the shape of mucosal folds. In birds surviving the acute stage of the disease, the bursa is progressively atrophying. Microscopically, an atrophy of follicles into the bursa is observed secondary to inflammatory and dystrophic necrobiotic alterations.
223.224.In some cases, the bursa is filled with coagulated fibrinous exudate that usually forms casts with the shape of mucosal folds. In birds surviving the acute stage of the disease, the bursa is progressively atrophying. Microscopically, an atrophy of follicles into the bursa is observed secondary to inflammatory and dystrophic necrobiotic alterations.
The kidneys are affected by a severe urate diathesis. In an acute outbreak and manifestation of the typical clinical signs, the diagnostics is not difficult. The diagnosis could be confirmed by detection of typical gross lesions throughout a patho-anatomical study. IBD should be differentiated from IBH (inclusion body hepatitis). The application of live vaccines in chickens is a key point in the prevention of IBD and should be related to the levels of maternal antibodies.
225.The kidneys are affected by a severe urate diathesis. In an acute outbreak and manifestation of the typical clinical signs, the diagnostics is not difficult. The diagnosis could be confirmed by detection of typical gross lesions throughout a patho-anatomical study. IBD should be differentiated from IBH (inclusion body hepatitis). The application of live vaccines in chickens is a key point in the prevention of IBD and should be related to the levels of maternal antibodies.

source:http://kenanaonline.com/files/0032/32327/infectious-bursal-disease-gumboro.htm
Gumboro diseases,postmortom findings

Tuesday, 3 January 2012

Microbiology of IBD VIRUS


Microbiology

The IBD Virus

  • Small, non-enveloped double stranded RNA virus.
  • Family: Birnaviridae.
  • Very stable hardy virus.
  • Able to withstand a wide pH range (pH 2-12).
  • Heat stable (still viable after 30 minutes at 60°C).
  • High level of resistance to most commonly used disinfectants.
  • Survives in the poultry house environment for extended periods of time.

Gumboro Disease - overview


Gumboro Disease - overview


Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), or Gumboro Disease, is a viral disease affecting young chicken's. The disease has a worldwide prevalence. The target organ of the virus is the Bursa of Fabricius, an important organ in the young chickens developing immune system.
The economic impact of an Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) infection is twofold:
  1. Direct mortality that can reach levels in excess of 40%, and
  2. Secondary infections, due to a suboptimal immune system, having a negative impact on production efficiency.
The negative effects of IBDV can be successfully controlled byvaccination and implementing sound biosecurity prinicples.

Tuesday, 12 July 2011

Infectious Bursal Disease.....Gumboro


                                             Infectious Bursal Disease.....Gumboro



                                               Infectious Bursal Disease.....Gumboro
                                                           Depressed and Debilitated Bird



                                             Infectious Bursal Disease.....Gumboro
                                                   postmortem lesions